Mangos (Mangifera species), are large, dense trees with scented, deep-green leaves. Flower sprays produced in spring followed by fruit which mature to green-red. Large seed with fibrous fleshy pulp.
Mangoes are generally a tough plant although added preparation will improve production. Tolerant of most soil types. Add compost to site and fruit tree fertiliser. Water well. Poor salt and frost tolerance. Propagated by seed or grafting.
Best results occur on well drained sandy loam to loam soils. Incorporate organic matter into the soil prior to planting Regular mulching is beneficial. Fertilise twice a year. Benefits from occasional sprays of seaweed solution or fish emulsion. Prune to control height and width. Only prune after fruit are harvested.
Some types (e.g. Common & Kensington Pride) can be produced true to type from seed, others are budded onto seedlings.
Pests & Diseases
Pests include beetles, fruit fly, scale and weevils.
Diseases may include bacterial spot, powdery mildew and anthracnose.
Scale can be controlled with oil or soap based sprays
Anthracnose may be deterred by pruning the tree to open the centre and improve ventilation.
Prone to fruit fly, anthracnose, root rots, scale, etc. Mangoes tend to be biennial bearing (ie. alternating between heavy crops one year, and little the next).
Under planting with alpine strawberry, garlic, lavender or rosemary is sometimes recommended as being beneficial.
M. indica (Mango) - The main species grown. It is the common mango of commercial importance. Varieties now offer range of fruit sizes, colour and size of tree.
M. odorata (Kuwini or Wangi) is a large tree with large oval green fruit and sweet orange pulp.
There are several other species occasionally grown for fruit, including: M. caesia (Belunu), M. longipes (Mango Ayer), M. pajang (Bambangan) and M. quadrifolia (Baab).
In Australia two varieties are commonly grown. These are Common and Kensington Pride.
New varieties have been releases, but these are not yet widely grown. The fruit mature between October to March in Australia, with the peak season being mid-November to late December. Fruits vary considerably in shape and size, with colours ranging from light green to yellow and orange.
They are used widely for culinary purposes, such as eaten fresh, juiced, canned, dried or frozen. Mangoes are widely used as a fresh desert fruit.